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John Reitman

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About John Reitman

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    Director of News & Education

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    Findlay, OH

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  1. 2016 Superintendent of the Year Dick Gray (right) of PGA Golf Club in Port St. Lucie, Florida, and the club's general manager Jimmy Terry. From finding innovative sources of irrigation water and tackling the mother of all construction projects to managing a national championship under grueling weather conditions, redefining personnel management and even donating an organ to help save a colleague, five finalists with vastly different resumes have been named for the 2018 TurfNet Superintendent of the Year Award, presented by Syngenta. Finalists include: Carlos Arraya, Bellerive Country Club, St. Louis; Brian Conn, Transit Valley Country Club in East Amherst, New York; Dwayne Dillinger, Bell Nob Golf Course, Gillette, Wyoming; Pat O'Brien, Hyde Park Golf and Country Club, Cincinnati; and Matthew Wharton, CGCS, MG, Carolina Golf Club, Charlotte, North Carolina. Carlos Arraya Bellerive Country Club, St. Louis Arraya was nominated by former green chairman Tom Schneider namely for resurrecting Bellerive's bentgrass greens that had been struggling after several hot summers, but he was recognized by the judges for his personnel management skills. Arraya's philosophy, which was borne mostly out of tragedy, puts life and people first and product second, with the understanding if you take care of your employees, they will take care of the golf course. CLICK HERE TO READ MORE. Brian Conn Transit Valley Country Club, East Amherst, New York While struggling to deal with his father's suicide, Conn was moved to act on an email seeking potential organ donors for fellow superintendent Scott Dodson. One year after a successful kidney transplant, both men and their families are linked in perpetuity. CLICK HERE TO READ MORE. Dwayne Dillinger Bell Nob Golf Course, Gillette, Wyoming When Bell Nob was facing escalating costs for potable water and no realistic alternative sources, Dillinger developed a protocol for mixing water from two separate wells. One well was virtually devoid of calcium, the other was too rich in it. The result was a combined water source that has helped the county that owns Bell Nob save more than a $1 million in water costs since it was implemented. CLICK HERE TO READ MORE. Pat O'Brien Hyde Park Golf and Country Club, Cincinnati As the man in charge of a $12 million construction project that touched almost every part of Hyde Park Golf and Country Club - except the golf course, O'Brien spent the past two years making vast changes to the club's infrastructure while constantly serving as a liaison between contractors, architects, engineers, subcontractors and city officials, all of whom often were going in different directions. And he did it all while enduring weather conditions that constantly threatened to derail the project. CLICK HERE TO READ MORE. Matthew Wharton, CGCS, MG Carolina Golf Club, Charlotte, North Carolina Wharton endured what he called the worst year for weather in his 14 years at Carolina Golf Club. The year started with dead Bermudagrass attributed to winterkill and ended - almost - with Hurricane Florence's arrival on the doorstep of the USGA Mid-Amateur. Wharton led the course through every challenge, pulled off a successful tournament, took on the role of president of his association and drew the admiration of members and colleagues. CLICK HERE TO READ MORE. Finalists are chosen from our panel of judges spanning the golf industry on criteria that include: labor management, maximizing budget limitations, educating and advancing the careers of colleagues and assistants, negotiating with government agencies, preparing for tournaments under unusual circumstances, service to golf clientele, upgrading or renovating the course and dealing with extreme or emergency conditions. The winner will be named Feb. 7 at the Syngenta booth during the Golf Industry Show in San Diego. The winner and a guest will win a trip for two on the 2019 TurfNet members golf trip to Ireland in the fall. Previous winners include: Jorge Croda, Southern Oaks Golf Club, Burleson, TX & Rick Tegtmeier, Des Moines Golf and Country Club, West Des Moines, IA (2017); Dick Gray, PGA Golf Club, Port St. Lucie, FL (2016); Matt Gourlay, Colbert Hills, Manhattan, KS (2015); Fred Gehrisch, Highlands Falls Country Club, Highlands, NC (2014); Chad Mark, Kirtland Country Club, Willoughby, OH (2013); Dan Meersman, Philadelphia Cricket Club (2012), Flourtown, PA; Paul Carter, The Bear Trace at Harrison Bay, Harrison, TN (2011); Thomas Bastis, The California Golf Club of San Francisco, South San Francisco, CA (2010); Anthony Williams, Stone Mountain (GA) Golf Club (2009); Sam MacKenzie, Olympia Fields (IL) Country Club (2008); John Zimmers, Oakmont (PA) Country Club (2007); Scott Ramsay, Golf Course at Yale University, New Haven, CT (2006); Mark Burchfield, Victoria Club, Riverside, CA (2005); Stuart Leventhal, Interlachen Country Club, Winter Park, FL (2004); Paul Voykin, Briarwood Country Club, Deerfield, IL (2003); Jeff Burgess, Seven Lakes Golf Course, Windsor, Ontario (2002); Kip Tyler, Salem Country Club, Peabody, MA (2001); Kent McCutcheon, Las Vegas (NV) Paiute Golf Resort (2000).
  2. Harrell's recently acquired Golf Enviro Systems, expanding the company's western footprint. Golf Enviro Systems is a Colorado Springs, Colorado-based distributor of soil, turf, greenhouse and landscape maintenance products servicing the professional markets in Colorado, New Mexico and southern Wyoming. All Harrell's products, including granular fertilizer products; liquid foliar nutrients; and wetting agents, adjuvants and colorants; and all branded fungicides, herbicides and inseciticides distributed by the Lakeland, Florida distributor of products and materials for the turf and ornamental industry will be available to customers in these regions. Gary Schinderle, Ben Boehme and Robert Gonzales, who served area customers for Golf Enviro will continue their roles with Harrell's. Rounding out the team will are territory manager Chris Freeman, regional sales director J.J. Jansen and vice president Nick Spardy. James Penny and Daniel Lewis will continue to manage operations and distribution out of the warehouse in Colorado Springs. Their combined years of experience backed by the Harrell's operations and business teams generates a new level of quality and customer support to Golf Enviro customers.
  3. In this episode of The Ladder, host John Reitman talks with Sean Reehoorn, superintendent at Aldarra Golf Club in Sammamish, Washington about how important it is to be ready for whatever curveball life throws at you. Reehoorn was the assistant at Aldarra Golf Club under Paul Colleran when his friend and mentor died in 2014 after battling brain cancer. Reehoorn emerged from an open call for a new superintendent to take over as the new head greenkeeper at this Tom Fazio design near Seattle.
  4. Rick Tegtmeier, CGCS, MG at Des Moines Golf and Country Club (right) with former North Course superintendent Tim Sims (left) and South Course superintendent Nate Tegtmeier. Below right Tegtmeier and wife Sherry help Zach Johnson celebrate his induction into the Iowa Golf Hall of Fame in 2016. Tegtmeier was one of four inductees named to the hall of fame this year. When the LPGA and the Ladies European Tour decided to bring the Solheim Cup to Iowa, Rick Tegtmeier, CGCS, MG, wanted to make sure it was an experience that players, organizers and those working the event would never forget. Tegtmeier's efforts in staging Des Moines Golf and Country Club and simultaneously highlighting the greenkeeping abilities of his team and volunteers during the 15th edition of the Solheim Cup in 2017 left a lasting impact on many involved with the tournament. It also was one among the career achievements that recently resulted in Tegtmeier being named among the latest group of inductees to the Iowa Golf Hall of Fame. "My whole goal was to shine the light on the superintendents who worked for me, their efforts, my crew and other Iowa superintendents who volunteered for the event," Tegtmeier said. "Many don't realize how good they are, but what they do matches every other superintendent in the country, but people don't know that because they don't see it on TV. To do that for them was a big deal for me." Tegtmeier, who was named winner of the 2017 TurfNet Superintendent of the Year Award, presented by Syngenta, was among four named to this year's hall of fame class that also included Jill Blackwood, a champion for women's golf in Iowa; Sean McCarty, a three-time high school state champion who also led Iowa to the 1992 Big 10 championship before embarking on a career as a professional; and Pat Wilcox, who was elected posthumously for his endeavors on the Iowa golf scene in the 1930s, '40s and '50s. Administered by the Iowa Golf Association, the Iowa Golf Hall of Fame includes a nominating committee that determines candidate eligibility of nominees, and a voting committee that consists solely of current hall of fame members. The seventh superintendent named to the Iowa Golf Hall of Fame, Tegtmeier and the other members of this year's class will be inducted at a time and location to be determined. Tegtmeier's efforts to stage a Solheim Cup for the ages did not go unnoticed. His volunteer staff included other superintendents from throughout Iowa and former colleagues and employees who had moved on elsewhere, and the event was a hit with other Iowans from around the state who turned out in droves to fill the gallery each day of the event. Those who nominated him for TurfNet Superintendent of the Year included PGA Tour player Zach Johnson, Solheim Cup Team USA captain Juli Inkster and then-Iowa Secretary of Agriculture Bill Northey. "Players from both sides raved about the course conditions, in particular the greens and how pure they were," Inkster wrote in a letter nominating Tegtmeier for the award. "The 2017 Solheim Cup was an epic and historic display of women's golf played on an unbelievable state at Des Moines Golf and Country Club. I have been around a lot of golf for a long time, and can honestly say that the conditioning of the course for the Solheim Cup was among the best I have ever seen." A graduate of Hawkeye Community College with a degree in horticulture science, Tegtmeier, 59, has been in the golf business for 45 years and a superintendent since 1980. The recipient of the Iowa GCSA Distinguished Service Award in 2017, he has been director of grounds at 36-hole Des Moines Golf and Country Club for 12 years, and prepped there for six years as North Course superintendent under fellow hall of fame member Bill Byers. "It's an honor," said Tegtmeier, one of 74 certified golf course superintendents also certified as a master greenkeeper by the British and International Golf Greenkeepers' Association. "I'm only the seventh superintendent to be inducted, and to follow in (Byers') footsteps is pretty special." Other inductees include Champions Tour player Dave Rummells, former superintendent and longtime Standard Golf sales manager Steven Tyler, and Johnson, who won the Masters in 2007 and the 2015 Open Championship at The Old Course at St. Andrews. Johnson texted a congratulatory message to Tegtmeier after the vote was official. "In Iowa, this is a big deal," Tegtmeier said. "You don't get a lot of Masters champions or British Open champions telling you congratulations."
  5. Lisa Goatley, a licensed counselor with The Cascade Group, and her husband, Mike Goatley, Ph.D., professor of turfgrass management at Virginia Tech, discuss how to work toward achieving work-life balance in today’s hectic world. Together, they discuss ways families can stay engaged and connected even when they are not together and how creating rituals and habits can help keep things on track when they are together. Their presentation is based on Lisa’s experiences as a professional therapist as well as Mike’s travel-heavy job at Virginia Tech and how that has affected their own lives and those of their children.
  6. At the USGA's annual conference next month, Mike Huck (right) will join 2008 recipient Ted Horton (left) as a USGA Green Section Award winner. California has been mired in drought for much of recent memory. The state's ability to deliver enough water to 40 million people has reached crisis level that in recent years has included voluntary reductions and state-mandated cutbacks and has changed the way superintendents manage golf courses. Standing at the center of this issue for the golf industry has been Mike Huck, a former superintendent and USGA Green Section agronomist and, for the better part of two decades, an irrigation consultant and a self-made expert on all things water in the country's most populous state. Because of his contributions to golf in California and beyond, Huck's former employer will make him the recipient of its highest honor next month when he receives the USGA Green Section Award at the association's annual meeting in San Antonio. The award has been given annually since 1961 to one who exemplifies outstanding contributions and dedication to the game of golf through their work with turfgrass. Access to adequate supplies of quality water is one of the most significant challenges facing the golf industry, and nowhere is this issue more critical than in California. Huck has taught and talked about water issues for years, and was among the founders of the California Alliance for Golf, a non-profit entity that serves as a unified voice for all aspects of the state's golf industry in a variety of capacities, including environmental issues such as water-use matters. In a 2016 TurfNet profile on Huck, Russ Myers, the former superintendent at Los Angeles Country Club and now the head greenkeeper at Southern Hills in Tulsa, Oklahoma, spoke about Huck's contributions to golf on the subject of water. "Mike is the most trusted voice of water issues in the state. Mike is a former golf course superintendent, but he's not a golf guy. He's a water guy," Myers told TurfNet in 2016. "With Mike, you felt you had a real voice, not a blind advocate or a paid lobbyist. He knows what the issues are, what is realistic and what is not." A native of Wisconsin, Huck has been in the golf business since the early 1970s when he worked at Maplecrest Country Club in Kenosha. He's been a Californian since his days studying turf at Cal Poly Pomona, where he graduated in 1982. While there, he worked at Industry Hills Golf Club at Pacific Palms Resort, first on the crew, then as assistant and later superintendent until 1989. He then moved on to become superintendent at Mission Viejo Country Club and later the Southern California Golf Association Members Club. "Mike's continued dedication to elevating the topic of water conservation in golf and advocating for education and dialogue has benefited courses across North America and the world," said Kimberly Erusha, Ph.D., USGA Green Section managing director, in a USGA news release. "His innovative approach, matched with his ability to communicate very complex science in a relatable way, has provided game-changing leadership that helps golf courses and communities." Previous winners include: (2018) Tim Hiers, CGCS, (2017) Dr. Norman Hummel, (2016) Dr. Bruce Clarke, (2015) Dr. Pat Vittum, (2014) Dr. Peter Dernoeden, (2013) Dr. Victor Gibeault, (2012) Wayne Hanna, (2011) Dennis Lyon, (2010) Dr. Dan Potter; (2009) Terry Bonar, (2008) Ted Horton, (2007) Dr. Joseph Vargas, (2006) Dr. Robert Shearman, (2005) Peter Cookingham, (2004) Monroe Miller, (2003) Dr. Houston Couch, (2002) George Thompson, (2001) Dr. Patricia Cobb, (2000) L. Palmer Maples, Jr; (1999) Dr. Noel Jackson, (1998) B.J. Johnson, (1997) Dr. Paul Rieke, (1996) Robert Williams, (1995) David Stone, (1994) Dr. Kenyon Payne, (1993) Dr. Ralph Engel, (1992) Dr. Richard Skogley, (1991) Dr. Joseph Troll, (1990) Chester Mendenhall; (1989) Dr. James Beard, (1988) Dr. Roy Goss, (1987) Sherwood Moore, (1986) James Montcrief, (1985) Dr. Victor Youngner (1984) Dr. William Daniel, (1983) Alexander Radko, (1982) Charles Wilson, (1981) Dr. Joseph Duich, (1980) Dr. C. Reed Funk; (1979) Arthur Snyder, (1978) Dr. Jess de France (1977) Edward Casey, (1976) Dr. James Watson (1975) Dr. Fanny-Fern Davis, (1974) Dr. Howard Sprague, (1973) Dr. Marvin Ferguson, (1972) Herb and Joe Graffis, (1971) Tom Mascaro, (1970) Eberhand Steiniger; (1969) Dr. Fred Grau (1968) James Haines (1967) Elmer Michael, (1966) Dr. H. Burton Musser, (1965) Dr. Glenn Burton, (1964) Joseph Valentine, (1963) O.J. Noer, (1962) Dr. Lawrence Dickinson, (1961) Dr. John Monteith, Jr.
  7. Profile Products makes a variety of products for the T&O industry, including hydraulic mulch (above) and soil amendments to aid in root development (below). Profile Products, which manufactures soil-erosion products and soil amendments for the turf and ornamental and industrial markets, has been acquired by Incline Equity Partners, a Pittsburgh-based private equity firm. Based in Buffalo Grove, Illinois, Profile is the world's leading manufacturer of hydraulically applied mulch and additives, horticulture substrates, as well as biotic and ceramic conditioners to amend soil. Incline Equity Partners will work together with Profile's current leadership team to develop markets and identify areas of growth. Profile's management team and 200-plus employees will continue to operate in Buffalo Grove; Conover and Hickory, North Carolina; Canton, Ohio; Blue Mountain, Mississippi; and Limestone and Columbia, Tennessee. "We are extremely excited to begin our new partnership with Incline Equity Partners," said Jim Tanner, president and chief executive officer of Profile Products. "Incline has the experience, knowledge and financial resources to help us develop and fuel our newest expansion strategies. Through our industry knowledge and Incline's leadership, we will strengthen our plans for growth, while creating even more opportunities for our current and future customers." Profile will continue to develop environmentally friendly solutions designed to minimize soil loss, accelerate seed germination and enhance the environment in all of its industry markets, including energy, mining, airports, transportation, landfill, construction, fire reclamation, sports fields, golf courses and horticulture. Currently, Profile's products are sold in 75 countries on six continents. Incline Equity Partners is a private investment firm focused on investing in lower middle-market growth companies that generally seeks companies with values of $25 million to $300 million across a variety of industries.
  8. until
    We take water for granted - until we have too much or too little of it. In this TurfNet University Webinar, Stan Kostka, Ph.D., currently a visiting scholar at the Penn State-Berks campus, will focus on water behavior in diverse soils; the concepts of water movement as influenced by soil physical, chemical or biological properties, including water repellency; recent advancements relating to interfaces; and the boundaries between soil textural classes, soil particles, microorganisms, organic matter and plant roots. The practical implications of this information as applied to management options for improving turfgrass and soil health will be linked to strategies for water utilization and delivery in the rootzone.
  9. Anthony Williams, CGCS at Four Seasons Resort and Club Dallas at Las Colinas in Irving, Texas, discusses how setting career goals for you and your golf course for 2019 and beyond and working to attain them can help ensure career longevity. His presentation includes how to establish realistic standards and how to go about working toward achieving them. He also talks about how to market yourself, from self-promotion and public relations strategies in your current position to resume-writing and other career advice tips designed to help you realize your next opportunity.
  10. until
    SDHI fungicides have become a large part of the fungicide market in recent years, but there are variations in their capabilities. They are a single site mode of action and that requires careful attention when putting a fungicide program together. In this TurfNet University Webinar, Ed Nangle, Ph.D., of Ohio State Agricultural Technical Institute will take an in-depth look at the chemistries. The presenter will focus on when to know the right situation and timing for the use of these products and how that knowledge will help superintendents gain value from them without creating long-term problems with resistance development.
  11. Like it or not, putting green quality is the measuring stick by which golf course superintendents are measured. Tees, fairways and hazards are important, but golfers often will overlook them for the sake of putting surfaces that roll fast and true, even if that pace outruns their playing ability. Countless articles have been written about how to alleviate the accumulation of organic matter that can make putting greens soft and puffy and threaten to send a golf course superintendent to the unemployment line. Conversely, the practices that help superintendents produce these sought-after conditions are temporarily disruptive and as such are immensely unpopular with golfers, many of whom do not understand their importance. At Ohio State University, Ed McCoy, Ph.D., associate professor of soil physics, has developed a simulation model that helps turf managers monitor organic matter accumulation, decomposition and dilution and provides a way to manage organic matter on a site-specific basis. The model uses a math-intensive set of equations that include initial soil organic matter quantity within the root zone, monthly accumulation of soil organic matter, monthly decomposition of soil organic matter, monthly dilution of soil organic matter by topdressing or sand injection, and the monthly removal of soil organic matter by core aeration. The model incorporates measurements at five intervals to a depth of five inches to provide a tool for turf managers to plan aeration, injection, tining and topdressing programs that is capable at projecting out as far as 30 years. For more information, get out your slide rule and click here.
  12. John Reitman

    Balancing work and family

    With long hours and working six or even seven days a week for months on end, being a golf course superintendent can put a strain on personal relationships. In this TurfNet University Webinar, Lisa Goatley, a licensed counselor with The Cascade Group, and her husband, Mike Goatley, Ph.D., professor of turfgrass management at Virginia Tech, will discuss how to work toward achieving work-life balance in today’s hectic world. Together, they will discuss ways families can stay engaged and connected even when they are not together and how creating rituals and habits can help keep things on track when they are together. Their presentation is based on Lisa’s experiences as a professional therapist as well as Mike’s travel-heavy job at Virginia Tech and how that has affected their own lives and those of their children.
  13. John Reitman

    Top 10 stories of 2018

    The year 2018 was a memorable year in the golf business, even if it was one many would like to forget. Weather that was unseasonably warm at some times, colder-than-average at others and seemingly far too wet for most of the year dominated much of the year for far too many superintendents. We have compiled a list of the top-10 most-read stories of 2018 from the pages of TurfNet. Click the headline to read the full text of each story. Topping the list were the events surrounding last year's U.S. Open: Note to the USGA: Call on the expertise of the GCS. From off-color greens, to tricky pin placements, a boorish gallery and one of the game's biggest names making a mockery of the rules, the USGA's biggest event of the season could not end soon enough. After years of preparation and anticipation to show off the William Flynn classic to the world, superintendent Jon Jennings (pictured above walking the course with Brad Klein) and Shinnecock members gave Mike Davis and the USGA what appeared to be a perfect golf course. What greeted the world's best players was anything but perfect, and within a matter of days, the course was a reminder of the 2004 Open, when workers were dragging hoses between pairings on the final day in an attempt to keep the greens alive. Final-round conditions drew complaints from golfers and, in the most surreal moment in championship golf in recent memory, led Phil Mickelson to backstop a putt to prevent it from rolling down hill. Exactly what happened is anyone's guess, but repeated U.S. Open set-up woes beg the question: Why are not the trained professionals who are in the business of providing championship conditions to please their members 365 days a year left in charge to since they are in the best position to know how far they can push their courses for championship tournaments? Here are the rest of the top stories from TurfNet in 2018. 2. Ohio YMCA takes over golf course with a fresh approach Hickory Sticks Golf Club in rural northwestern Ohio has defied the odds for nearly 60 years, trudging along in an area with a modest population that has always hovered in the neighborhood of 9,000-10,000 people. It is a conservative area where playing it safe can be a way of life. The golf course entered a new era last month when its former owner donated the 27-hole facility to the YMCA of Van Wert County. 3. Former superintendent finds Plan B in an unlikely place Former superintendent Trey Anderson left the golf course behind after 20 years for the next phase of his career as director of production for Ieso Illinois, a medical cannabis grower in Carbondale, Illinois. 4. Women in turf encourage others to follow in their footsteps Since the days of Old Tom Morris, becoming a golf course superintendent has largely been a man's job. Two female superintendents in Canada, however, are paving the way for others who want to follow in their footsteps. 5. Cold temps deal blow to some Grand Strand courses One of the first signs that the weather was knocking the golf turf business off the rails in 2018 occurred in the Myrtle Beach area when cold temperatures last spring affected playing conditions at an estimated 30 percent of the area's golf courses. The widespread damage prompted former Clemson turf pathologist Bruce Martin to describe the damage as the worst he had seen on the Grand Strand in 30 years. 6. Opinions vary on solid tine vs. core aerification There are differing schools of thought on aerifying greens - namely whether to pull a core, and what to do with them after extracting them. Superintendents in different parts of the country weigh in on which method they prefer and why. 7. Colo brothers: Taking Florida by storm Both professionally and personally, John Colo is no stranger to adversity. Fortunately, he and brother Jim (both pictured at right), who also is a superintendent, have each other to lean on as they ply their craft in South Florida. 8. Myrtle Beach courses closed to repair Bermuda greens Unfortunately for superintendents - and golfers - troubles continued into the year in Myrtle Beach as at least a dozen courses to repair Bermudagrass greens that went uncovered over the winter and showed significant damage by spring. 9. Saunders leads revival at Pittsburgh classic The Pittsburgh area is home to some of the country's best golf courses. There was a day when the Longue Vue Club was on that list. After years of neglect and disrepair at Longue Vue, superintendent Josh Saunders (at right) has the course back in that conversation. 10. Reigning superintendent of the year going out with a bang Dick Gray put the exclamation point on his reign as 2016 TurfNet Superintendent of the Year by unveiling a newly redesigned Ryder Course at PGA Golf Club in Port St. Lucie, Florida. It was the fourth renovation in four years for the 74-year-old Gray.
  14. Recent research has shown that there are four pathogens that are responsible for causing dollar spot in turfgrass. Is there a higher honor in the scientific world than having a disease named after you? If that's the case, four prominent turfgrass researchers have posthumously been afforded quite a distinction as each, in an effort to redefine the dollar spot-causing pathogen, has been singled out for his work either in disease management in turfgrass or developing disease-resistant cultivars. Dollar spot in turfgrass was identified in 1937 as being caused by the pathogen Sclerotinia homeocarpa. Ever since, it seems scientists have been trying to learn even more about the disease and what causes it. Research conducted recently by a host of scientists at Rutgers, North Carolina State, Ohio State and the U.S. Department of Agriculture has identified a new genus and four species - not just one - that cause dollar spot in turfgrass. "To a large extent, this is not a big change for the average turf manager," said Bruce Clarke, Ph.D., of Rutgers University. "It is critically important to understand that there is more than one pathogen out there, but it boils down to this - one attacks cool-season grasses and one is the major pathogen on warm-season grasses in North America. The other two occur primarily in the U.K., so for the average turf manager, you're still dealing with one pathogen. It just happens to be there are four pathogens worldwide that can cause symptoms that everybody associated with dollar spot, but you're just dealing with one species." The new genus, Clarireedia, is a combination of the latin "Clarus", meaning famous, and "reedia" for C. Reed Funk, Ph.D., the legendary Rutgers turf breeder who dedicated much of his career to developing disease-resistant turf cultivars. Among the four species identified, two occur primarily in North America and two in Europe, according to the research. C. jacksonii is named for Noel Jackson, Ph.D., the former University of Rhode Island turf pathologist and diagnostician, who conducted some of the early research on dollar spot and how to manage it over a career that spanned 40 years. It also is the species that scientists say occurs commonly in cool-season turf in the U.S. C. monteithiana, the pathogen that causes dollar spot in warm-season turf in the U.S., is named for former USDA scientist John Monteith who first described dollar spot in turf in 1928. The other two pathogen species, C. bennettii, named for British scientist F.T. Bennett who conducted early work on dollar spot, and C. homeocarpa are found primarily in the United Kingdom. The most recent study, which was conducted from 2012-2017 and the results published in the August 2018 edition of Fungal Biology, hardly marks the end of the road for scientific research on dollar spot. On the contrary, Clarke says scientists still do not know as much as they would like about dollar spot and why so many turf managers in the field have observed inconsistencies about how and when the disease manifests. "It is possible that there are different species that can be associated with these observations," Clarke said. "For the most part, I think it's still the same species, but it's just different strains that occur more prevalently let's say in the fall than in the summer, or in the fall than in the spring. "At this point in time, we don't have a quick-and-dirty method for separating out these species. We're working on that with different molecular techniques." A research team led by Paul Koch, Ph.D. of the University of Wisconsin is awaiting USDA approval for a multi-state research project on dollar spot. Once approved, that project should begin later this year, Clarke said. "Part of that is to develop a rapid method to separate out which species you are dealing with," Clarke said. "In essence, in most instances it is going to boil down to those two pathogens (C. jacksonii and C. monthethiana). Now, in certain parts of the country where you have warm- and cool-season grasses together, you might have some back-and-forth movement." Part of the pending research will be to simplify identifying the four species and how each is affected by chemical and agronomic programs. "We need to start looking at fungicide screening in the laboratory with various chemical groups to see if there is any difference in terms of fungicide susceptibility among the various species. So, there is a lot of work that needs to be done now to see how fungicides affect the different species and how management practices might affect the different species," Clarke said. "But before we can start doing that on a large scale, especially in research, we need to have the ability to speciate these much more easily than we do right now. "We have learned there is a tremendous amount of diversity within this pathogen and that it's not just one species, there are four species. What we don't know now, we haven't by any means exhausted identifying where isolates fall into these categories. When I say c. jacksonii seems like it's primarily in cool-season grasses, that's what it seems like based on this research, but it's possible that it's not that simple. "This has opened up a lot of opportunity for research, but it's going to take a while before we can start sorting this out and start saying with any degree of certainty 'If you have species A, B, C or D, this is the type of BMP program that you want to be following. That's a ways off."
  15. To help professional turf managers stay up to date in their efforts to combat troublesome weeds, the Weed Diagnostics Center at the University of Tennessee has updated its Mobile Weed Manual. Developed to "assist turfgrass managers with developing effective weed management programs" includes the latest information on weeds and the products used to control them, including label updates. The site includes a search function that allows users to select from pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicide products. Users also can search for products by selecting weed types. The tool even allows users to select from broadleaf or grassy weeds or kyllingas or sedges, or by selecting from among any of 126 specific weed species. The manual can be used on Apple and Android devices and is desktop compatible.